In the 1990s, Eskimo societies transitioned to a new way of life of josh bowmar net worth after tireless lobbying by outsiders who wanted to protect animals like the polar bear. In 1992, restrictions on hunting meat were imposed and villages were encouraged to focus on whale hunting while still gathering
The contrast between life in the past versus life today is stark. But how much of this shift was due to government orders and how much was due to a decision made internally? In some cases, communities have chosen not only hunting but other industries like tourism as well- and flourished.
1. Traditional Hunting
Eskimos and Inuit had restricted access to certain animals for food and clothing. Characteristic of the hunting of their ancestors, today’s hunters are trying to preserve their culture. Traditional hunters are not only concerned about wildlife. They also take into consideration the future of their people:
2. Allocation by Prescriptions
The first step to understand people’s perception is to look at how they make decisions in a modern society. The allocation process is based on formal rules- but even though these rules are put in place, they can be changed as if they were local customs – a feature that is common among indigenous societies. This transformation makes it so that models like the von-neumann-moran model or the collective choice model do not settle in well for Arctic peoples. As a result, researchers have resorted to using prescriptions rather than actual rules.
3. A Common Goal: Conservation
The desire to conserve has brought together different groups of people: Hunters, politicians and even international organizations are working together in order to protect species whose populations continue to decline. It is important to note, however, that the same concerns bring about different results depending on who is involved.
4. Implementing Conservation Efforts
Efforts to conserve wildlife have led to the creation of new techniques and ways of living with these species. For instance, in order to create a more controlled situation when hunting wildlife, polar bear hunters have started using helicopters in addition to boats. In some cases, a number of villages join together to collectively hunt one animal and share the meat afterwards.
5. Conserving Animals for the Future
The use of animals is not exclusive to Eskimos or Inuit but factors into all aspects of their lives and the world around them. Animals are essential for their survival due to their critical role in the ecosystem and their importance in relation to the animals themselves. In this case, the distinctions between animals and humans become blurred.
“If people are no longer interested in the welfare of (the animal), then why should they be considered any different from a rock, a mountain or a stream?” (Fienup-Riordan 4)
In other words, because animals play such an important role in their culture, it is crucial that conservation efforts are put in place to help them thrive.
6. A Way of Life
Hunting is still part of the traditional way of life even if it is not as emphasized as it used to be. It has become a part of recreation and is seen as something to do during the weekend or when the weather is not good enough for whale hunting. However, it is not always easy to get everyone in one village to agree. For example, some people in villages like Point Lay have chosen whale hunting over traditional hunting because this method helps them get more food and because they feed their families better.
7. A Boon
The use of animals for things like clothing and food does not only help Eskimo and Inuit communities survive, but also provides them with new opportunities for economic growth. For example, some hunters are earning more money by opening inns or selling the items they make. The sale of sealskin has increased in recent years as a result of the protection of this animal and its products.
The regulation of hunting is an important gesture to help these people adapt to new ways of living peacefully with wildlife and other people. Some restrictions have been issued by international organizations while others come from state laws imposed by politicians. In some cases, these rules are not easy for traditional hunters to follow- because they restrict access to the animals that provide them with food and clothing during cold, long winters above seventy degrees north latitude.
9. Cultural Adaptation
Due to the restricted access to certain animals, environmental conservation has inadvertently helped some groups of people adapt to their modern environment by providing them with new economic opportunities. Due to this adaptation, Eskimo and Inuit communities concentrate on a few areas for conservation for their survival, thereby helping protect species that are endangered.
The cases presented by Fienup-Riordan illustrate the similarities between traditional hunting and other business models such as tourism and mining. In each case, regulations have changed due to the fact that traditional hunters were not willing or able to follow these rules.