Adopting a child is a life-changing decision that brings joy and fulfillment to both the child and the adoptive parents. In India, the process of adoption is governed by the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, which aims to provide a safe and nurturing environment for children in need of care and protection. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the steps and requirements to adopt a child in India.

Understanding Adoption in India

Adoption is a legal process that establishes a permanent parent-child relationship between individuals who are not biologically related. In India, adoption can be done by Indian citizens, Non-Resident Indians (NRIs), and foreign nationals, subject to certain eligibility criteria and legal procedures.

Types of Adoption

There are two types of adoption recognized in India:

  • Domestic Adoption: This refers to the adoption of an Indian child by Indian citizens or NRIs residing in India.
  • Inter-country Adoption: This refers to the adoption of an Indian child by foreign nationals or NRIs residing outside India.

Eligibility Criteria

Before proceeding with the adoption process, it is important to ensure that you meet the eligibility criteria set by the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA), the apex body responsible for regulating adoption in India. The eligibility criteria include:

  • Age: The prospective adoptive parents should be at least 25 years old and have a maximum age difference of 45 years between the child and the younger parent.
  • Marital Status: Married couples should have a stable marital relationship of at least two years. Single individuals are also eligible to adopt, subject to certain conditions.
  • Health: Prospective adoptive parents should be physically, mentally, and emotionally stable to provide a nurturing environment for the child.
  • Financial Stability: The adoptive parents should have a stable income to support the child’s upbringing.
  • Background Check: A background check, including a home study, is conducted to ensure the suitability of the prospective adoptive parents.

The Adoption Process

The adoption process in India involves several stages, each with its own set of requirements and procedures. It is essential to follow these steps diligently to ensure a smooth and legal adoption:

1. Registration

The first step in the adoption process is to register with an authorized adoption agency recognized by the State Adoption Resource Agency (SARA) or CARA. The registration involves submitting the necessary documents, including proof of eligibility, identification, and address.

2. Home Study

After registration, a social worker from the adoption agency will conduct a home study to assess the suitability of the prospective adoptive parents. The home study includes interviews, background checks, and home visits to ensure a safe and nurturing environment for the child.

3. Pre-adoption Counseling

Prospective adoptive parents are required to attend pre-adoption counseling sessions conducted by the adoption agency. These sessions provide information about adoption, parenting, and the challenges associated with it. It helps prepare the parents for the responsibilities and emotional aspects of adoption.

4. Child Referral

Once the home study and counseling sessions are completed, the adoption agency will provide a child referral. The referral includes information about the child, such as age, gender, medical history, and any special needs. Prospective adoptive parents have the option to accept or reject the referral.

5. Court Proceedings

If the prospective adoptive parents accept the child referral, they need to file a petition for adoption in the court. The court will review the case and issue a court order if everything is found to be in order. The court order grants legal custody of the child to the adoptive parents.

6. Follow-up Visits

After the court order is obtained, the adoption agency will conduct follow-up visits to ensure the well-being of the child and the adjustment of the adoptive family. These visits continue for a specified period, as mandated by the adoption agency.

7. Issuance of Adoption Decree

Once the follow-up visits are completed successfully, the adoption agency will issue an adoption decree. This decree declares the child as the legal child of the adoptive parents and provides all the rights and responsibilities associated with parenthood.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1: How long does the adoption process in India take?

The adoption process in India can take anywhere from 6 months to 2 years, depending on various factors such as the availability of children, the completion of paperwork, and court proceedings.

Q2: Can a single person adopt a child in India?

Yes, a single person can adopt a child in India, subject to certain conditions. The prospective adoptive parent should be financially stable, have a good support system, and meet the other eligibility criteria set by CARA.

Q3: Can a foreign national adopt a child in India?

Yes, foreign nationals can adopt a child in India through the inter-country adoption process. They need to fulfill the eligibility criteria of their home country as well as the requirements set by CARA.

Q4: Are there any restrictions on the age of the child that can be adopted?

No, there are no specific restrictions on the age of the child that can be adopted. However, the age preference of the prospective adoptive parents may be taken into consideration while matching a child for adoption.

Once the adoption is finalized, the adoptive parents have all the legal rights and responsibilities associated with parenthood. The adopted child also has the same rights as a biological child, including inheritance rights and the right to the adoptive parents’ property.


Adopting a child in India is a beautiful and rewarding journey that requires careful planning, preparation, and adherence to legal procedures. By understanding the eligibility criteria, following the adoption process diligently, and seeking guidance from authorized adoption agencies, prospective adoptive parents can provide a loving and nurturing home to a child in need. Remember, adoption is not just about giving a child a family, but also about enriching your own life with love, joy, and a sense of purpose.

Ishaan Sharma is a tеch bloggеr and cybеrsеcurity analyst spеcializing in thrеat hunting and digital forеnsics. With еxpеrtisе in cybеrsеcurity framеworks and incidеnt rеsponsе, Ishaan has contributеd to fortifying digital dеfеnsеs.


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